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At the secondary stage, social sciences comprise elements of history, geography, political science and economics. The main focus will be on contemporary India and the learner will be initiated into a deeper understanding of the social and economic challenges facing the nation. In keeping with the epistemic shift proposed, contemporary India will be discussed from the perspectives of the adivasi, dalit and other disenfranchised populations and effort should be to relate the content much as possible to the children’s everyday lives. India’s freedom struggle and the contributions of various sections/regions shall be studied. India’s nationalist movement and its developments as an independent nation will be taught in the context of developments in the modern world. Issues relating to geography should be taught keeping in mind the need to inculcate in the child a critical appreciation for conservation and environmental concerns. In political science the focus should be on discussing the philosophical foundations that underlie the value framework of the Indian Constitution, i.e. an in-depth discussion of equality, liberty, justice, fraternity, dignity, plurality and freedom from exploitation. As the disciplinary area of economics is being introduced to the child at this level, it is important that the topics discussed are from the perspective of the masses. For example, poverty and unemployment may be derived from an understanding of the functioning of economic institutions and the inequalities sustained by economic relations.